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The Friar of Carcassonne: Revolt against the Inquisition in the Last Days of the Cathars

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Though the city was about 500 miles north of Toulouse, the Massacre of Vassy that occurred on March 1, 1562, was seen as a dread event by Protestants throughout France. In Languedoc at (Béziers, Cahors, Carcassonne, Castelnaudary and Grenade) spontaneous Protestant revolts occurred upon hearing of the massacre. [4] French demonstration of 15 May 1848, an event played out in the streets of Paris that was intended to reverse the results of a Second Republic election of deputies to the Constituent Assembly. Robert McCune Kingdon (2007). Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France, 1555–1563. Genéve: Libraire Droz SA. Following the riots the populace of Toulouse became well trained in the methods of organized confessional militancy. In 1563 the Catholic populace was called by the Parlement to enroll in leagues dedicated to preserving the religious purity of France. These people were led by Catholic warriors from the nobility, ranking members of the Catholic hierarchy, and city officials. Members were to mark their homes and clothing with white crosses. All who joined "of whatever dignity" had to take an oath to preserve the state religion. [2] Anyone league members encountered who refused to take the oath was to "be considered rebels". [2] This practice was reinvigorated in 1568 reformed with the title "crusade" rather than league. [2] Toulouse's "crusade" received a papal bull of approval in March 1568. [2] This group was later folded into the Catholic League that formed in 1576 with the express intention of preventing the Protestant Henry of Navarre from becoming King.

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University of Paris strike, riots at the University of Paris that resulted in a number of student deaths and reforms of the medieval university. In 1568 between four and five hundred were slain in the night and their bodies thrown into the Garonne river. [2] [22] In addition to the night pogrom, sixteen members high officers (including many from Parlement) were placed under arrest for suspicion of heresy, while sixteen more fled to Montauban and Castres. [2] Though the Council edict was not viewed as a success, they did decide that there would be conference between Catholic bishops and reformed ministers (who would be granted safe conduct) to meet at Poissy. Originally scheduled for August 18 the Colloquy at Poissy would be postponed until October due to a meeting of the Estates General on the state of French finances. [17] Notre Dame-des Landes Communities from nearby towns prevent an airport from being built on Notre Dame-des Landes forest and agricultural fields.A contemporary Reformed Church source recalled "Stones were thrown at the Protestants, and swords were brandished. Many were hurt and several were killed. Amongst the latter were to be found a replacement for a procurator at the Parlement named Vitalis, another called Monsieur de Bazac from Viterbe, Claude Carron, a cloth-finisher, and a student, as well as many others drowned in the sewers." [11] All contemporary sources hold that more were slain outside the walls than in the streets of Toulouse. [4] It is estimated that around 3,000 to 5,000 people had died in the combined rioting and massacre, with the vast majority being Protestants. [1] [2] [23] [26] Trials [ edit ] Under Spanish promises of his own independent kingdom (rather than being a vassal king), Antoine of Navarre secretly sided with the Duke of Guise and his Catholic allies (often referred to as the Triumvirate). Antoine began taking lessons on Catholicism and quarreled with his wife about his desire to take their son to Catholic Mass or to attend the Catholic baptism of the Spanish ambassador. [13] On 8 November, President Jacques Chirac declared a state of emergency, [13] [14] effective at midnight. Despite the new regulations, riots continued, though on a reduced scale, the following two nights, and again worsened the third night. On 9 November and the morning of 10 November a school was burned in Belfort, and there was violence in Toulouse, Lille, Strasbourg, Marseille, and Lyon.

Carcassonne city guide - essential visitor information in English Carcassonne city guide - essential visitor information in English

Observing the Protestant funeral procession as it passed closer to the seat of Parlement, a number of Catholics refused to let it proceed and then took possession of the body by force. [1] Both sides fell into violent struggle. The tocsin alarm bell was rung out by a priest, [1] with the majority responding being Catholics from the general procession. [4] It was later determined that even priests had disguised themselves so that they could secretly take an active hand in the riot. [4] On the Catholic side, many of the nobles, who had responded to the ban and arrière-ban, were appalled at the cost the Protestant resistance and their tactics of urban warfare was having on their armored troops. Catholic Captain Ricaud was so devastated at the loss of so many of his troops within just two days of fighting that he withdrew to an Augustinian monastery, refused all food and drink, and wailed about the great loss of gens de bien (good/honest folk). [4] The nobles were also dismayed that the Protestants had no respect for the status of their bloodlines and casualties among the gentry were high. [4] One Catholic noble was even thrown by Protestant townsfolk into the river weighted down by his gilded armor. [4]By the end of the riot many people lay murdered, the majority being Reformed Church members (artisans, students, and legal clerks). [4] [26] Having set forth their grievances, the Estates deputies left, and the focus fell on the upcoming Colloquy of Poissy. towns in total. Île-de-France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Midi-Pyrénées, Rhône-Alpes, Alsace, Franche-Comté, Angers. With deference due to Navarre, in accord with the regency arrangement, Catherine made the Constable of Navarre chief in her counsels. The vacillating position of King Antoine of Navarre between Protestant and Catholic sympathies continued to play a large role in the uncertainty surrounding France's religion in events leading up to the riots of Toulouse. Riots in Paris after police officer 'accidentally' anally raped young man". Independent.co.uk. 16 February 2017.

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